Bioenergy - Lexicon

What is biogas? How does it become a biofuel? And how can liquid biogenic CO2 help in the production of tomatoes?

The agriportance bioenergy lexicon explains terms and facts about bioenergy in an understandable way.

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"Waste" is defined as in Article 3 (1) of the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC2: "Waste is any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard." The RED II further specifies that this excludes "substances that have been intentionally modified or contaminated to meet this definition"

Expired certificate

An expired certificate means a certificate that is no longer valid. In principle, sustainability certificates are only valid for 1 year.

Separated solids

Separated solids are to be regarded as solid manure. These can be collected on a manure plate, for example.

Waste heat

Waste heat (synonym: waste heat) describes the thermal energy (heat) that is released to the environment during processes (e.g. in the biogas plant and biomethane upgrading plant) and is often not used.


Acetogenesis is the third stage of anaerobic fermentation. Specifically: degradation of short-chain fatty acids, acetic acid, CO2 and hydrogen with CO2 formation.

Field bean

The field bean is an annual, protein-rich legume (papilionaceous plant). Field bean is used to a limited extent in feed rations because it contains tannins, which cause problems in rumen fermentation. In addition, the tannins reduce feed intake.

Field beans green have a biogas yield of 82.7 Nm³/ t FM and a methane content of 55 %. Field beans grains have a biogas yield of 582.1 Nm³/ t FM and a methane content of 56.1 % and field beans GPSilage have a biogas yield of 196.8 Nm³/ t FM and a methane content of 54.6%.

Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Directive (abbreviation: AFID)

dt. Development of an infrastructure for alternative fuels. The AFID is a report under Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the development of alternative fuels infrastructure. The AFID establishes the framework for the development of alternative fuels infrastructure in Europe, including for electricity for electric vehicles as well as hydrogen for fuel cells and LNG for shipping.

Scrap bread

Scrap bread (in Germany also: Backbread) is bread that is left over at the end of a sales day in bakeries and retail stores. Accordingly, it is sorted out as food or its shelf life has been exceeded. In the case of old bread, a distinction must then be made between bread that is fit for consumption and bread that has spoiled.

It is partly used as animal feed or processed into biofuel by alcoholic fermentation. Since the end of 2006, the feeding of kitchen and food waste to livestock has also been banned in Germany (EU Directive 1774/2002).

Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion is a biotechnological process that takes place in the absence of air (atmospheric oxygen). The aim is the decomposition of organic matter.

Recognized voluntary system

A recognized voluntary scheme is defined according to Article 30(4) of Directive (EU) 2018/2001 recognized voluntary scheme.

Apple pomace

Apple pomace is the press residue (pomace) from the production of apple juice. Apple pomace is often used as a roughage substitute for feeding dairy cows and other livestock, as it is a fresh feed rich in fiber and crude fiber. Furthermore, pomace is energetically valuable and is suitable for energy production using biogas plants or as pomace pellets, which can serve as fuel

Alcohol to Jet (abbreviation ATJ)

The conversion routes for kerosene from biogenic alcohols are typically referred to as "alcohol-to-jet" (AtJ) processes. The required alcohols can be obtained from organic material by various biochemical and/or thermochemical routes.

Suspended certificate

A suspended certificate is a certificate that has been temporarily invalidated due to compliance issues identified by the certification body or at the voluntary request of the economic operator.


Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (abbreviation: BAFA)

The Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA) is a higher federal authority in the portfolio of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Climate Protection. The Federal Office performs important administrative tasks for the federal government in the areas of foreign trade, promotion of business and small and medium-sized enterprises, energy and auditor oversight. In the field of energy, BAFA promotes energy-efficient renovation and energy-efficient technologies such as combined heat and power generation, air-conditioning and refrigeration systems or heating networks. In the area of electromobility, BAFA implements the environmental bonus to promote demand for electric vehicles. BAFA also performs other tasks for other federal ministries.


Bagasse is the name given to the fibrous, ground residue left over from sugar production after sugar cane has been squeezed or syrup obtained from sugar millet. Bagasse is considered a by-product and can be put to a variety of uses. Bagasse can be used in chemistry, industry and livestock.

Cotton extraction scrap

Cotton extraction meal is produced during oil extraction from cotton seeds. The cotton seeds are processed partly unhulled, but also partly or completely hulled. This also influences the crude fiber content and the concentration of the other nutrients. It is used in a limited way in animal nutrition.

Brewer's yeast

Fresh brewer's yeast is a by-product obtained during the production of beer. Essentially, it consists of the cells of living, non-killed yeast strains. Brewer's yeast is not a common feedstuff but is mainly used in human nutrition. In animal nutrition, brewer's yeast is used at most as an active ingredient carrier for pigs and poultry.

Brewer's yeast dried

Brewer's yeast is a by-product of beer production. It is usually dried, although it can also be fed fresh. During drying, the yeast cells are killed. Dried brewer's yeast has a high nutritional value.

Brewer's grains

Brewer's grains are produced as a residue during beer production when the wort is separated from the mash. Basically, brewer's grains contain undissolved components of the malt: husks, skins, polysaccharides that have not been broken down into sugar, almost all the fat, and about 70% of the crude protein of the starting product.

Brewer's grains are mainly used in animal feed for ruminants. Brewer's grains are considered waste from beverage production. Accordingly, brewer's grains can be counted as waste and residual materials toward the greenhouse gas quota under Section 37 a (4) of the BImSchG if they cannot be used as animal feed.

Organic waste

Biowaste is waste for recycling of animal or plant origin or fungal materials that can be degraded by microorganisms, soil-borne organisms or enzymes. This includes waste for recycling with a high organic content of animal or plant origin or of fungal materials.


What is biomethane?

Biomethane is a gaseous fuel. Chemically, it corresponds to the molecule methane. Biomethane is produced from biomass. Therefore, unlike fossil methane, it is sustainable. One example is the production of biomethane from straw. Straw is decomposed by microorganisms. This produces biogas. This contains biomethane. This is extracted from it. Biomethane can be produced from any biomass. Read more


Biomass is the most valuable commodity on this earth. It is the basic material of all life. Humans need it to breathe (oxygen), to eat and to generate energy. It also protects soils, filters and stores water. Biomass is an important raw material for humans, from which basic products such as paper and clothing (flax, hemp) are obtained. In addition, biomass can be used to produce bioenergy. This can be used, for example, as fuel or for electricity.
Read more


What is biogas?

Biogas is a gas mixture. It consists mainly of methane (50-65%) and CO2 (49-34%). Other volatile components are hydrogen sulfide, water vapor, oxygen and hydrogen. It is produced from biomass that is decomposed by microorganisms. Biogas is used as a fuel because it contains methane as an energy-rich molecule. Read more

Biogenic carbon / biogenic CO2

What is biogenic carbon / biogenic CO2?

Biogenic CO2 is carbon dioxide that, unlike fossil CO2, has been obtained from sustainable sources. Chemically, biogenic CO2 is similar to fossil CO2. It consists of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms. Under usual conditions, it is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable and acidic gas. Due to its good solubility in water, CO2 is also known as carbonic acid. Read more


The abbreviation 'CNG' (Compressed Natural Gas) is not only known among experts. It is the standardized name throughout Europe for environmentally friendly and climate-friendly gas. It is also known as natural gas or autogas. For several decades, it has been used primarily as an alternative fuel source in passenger cars. Even though it is more climate-friendly than conventional gasoline or diesel, it is natural gas and therefore comes from fossil sources. When it is burned, not only is a significant amount of CO2 emitted into the air, but carbon monoxide (CO) as well as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter are also released into the environment. For a few years now, gas filling stations, not only in Germany, have increasingly been offering so-called 'bio-CNG'. Read more

Biomass Regulation

The Biomass Ordinance (abbreviation: BiomasseV) serves to clarify which materials are to be classified as biomass within the meaning of the EEG, and accordingly fall under the described support system.

Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (abbreviation: BLE)

The Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE) is a federal authority. It fulfills a variety of tasks in the fields of agriculture, fisheries and nutrition. The BLE is also responsible for the governmental web application Sustainable - Biomass - Systems (Nabisy), on which the proof of sustainability is provided for liquid and gaseous biomass according to the EU Directive 2009/28/EC.

Combined heat and power units (abbreviation: CHP)

Combined heat and power units (CHP units) are combined heat and power generation plants that operate according to the combined heat and power principle. The special feature of this principle is that it produces electricity (electrical energy) and heat (thermal energy) in one working process. In the process, the useful heat that would otherwise simply be discharged into the environment is decoupled. This useful heat can first be collected in an intermediate storage tank (buffer storage) and then used later for heating purposes (e.g. local heating concepts) or as process heat (e.g. for fermenters in biogas plants). The decisive advantage: a significantly increased utilization rate of 90 % compared to conventional systems (e.g. 33-40 % for coal-fired power plants), which generate energy and heat (thermal energy) separately.  Read more


What is bioenergy?

Bioenergy is a form of energy from the field of renewable energies. It is a generic term for a variety of energetic technologies from the field of renewable energies A subset of renewable energies - around twenty percent - is accounted for by bioenergy. It is called bioenergy because energy is generated from biomass.   Read more

Biofuel Sustainability Ordinance (abbreviation: Biokraft-NachV)

The Biofuels Sustainability Ordinance (Biokraft-NachV) is a regulation on requirements for the sustainable production of biofuels. The Biokraft-NachV sets binding sustainability criteria for biofuels and contains the specifications for demonstrating sustainability.

Biofuel Quota Act (abbreviation: BIOKRAFTQUG)

The Biofuel Quota Act is legislation introducing a biofuel quota by amending the Federal Immission Control Act and amending energy and electricity tax regulations. The Act stipulates and regulates a minimum share of biofuels in total fuel sales in Germany.

In general, the BioKraftQuG obliges the mineral oil industry to place a fixed and increasing minimum proportion of biofuels on the market. This should increase annually by 0.25 % up to 8 % of the energy content of the total fuels placed on the market in 2015 in accordance with Section 37a (3) BImSchG.

Biofuel Quota Amendment Ordinance (abbreviation: BIOKRQAÄNDV)

Regulation on the adjustment of quota regulations and the implementation of European law requirements for the greenhouse gas reduction of biofuels.

Biomass-to-Liquids (abbreviation: BTL)

dt. Biomass to liquid fuels. BtL is a thermochemical process that can convert a range of biomass types into a range of fuels and chemicals. BtL is based on established coal-to-liquids and gas-to-liquids technologiesThe introduction of BtL can contribute to the decarbonization of the transport fuel sector and is of great interest globally as policy makers increasingly focus on the environmental impact of biofuel use.

BtL fuels are therefore synthetic fuels made from biomass. They belong to the second generation of biofuels. The biomass from which fuels are produced includes, for example, firewood and biowaste.

Calorific value

The calorific value (synonym: "upper heating value") indicates the energy that is released during complete combustion and subsequent cooling back to the reference temperature.The calorific value differs from the heating value because the condensation heat is included in the calorific value. It is expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh) per cubic meter (m3). The calorific value of the purchased gas is usually indicated on the bill. In principle, the calorific value depends on the composition of the gas. Butane and propane have a significantly higher calorific value than methane, which, however, is often the main component of gas.

Federal Immission Control Act

The Federal Immission Control Act (abbreviation: BImSchG) is the law for protection against harmful effects on the environment caused by air pollution, noise, vibrations and similar processes. It contains, among other things, the ordinance implementing the regulations of the biofuel quota.

Federal Immission Control Ordinance

The Federal Immission Control Ordinance (abbreviation: BImSchV) is a legal ordinance of the Federal Government that can be issued on the basis of an authorization in the Federal Immission Control Act.

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (abbreviation: BMUB)

The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Nuclear Safety and Consumer Protection (BMUV for short) is a supreme federal authority of the Federal Republic of Germany. In addition to its focus on environmental protection and nature conservation, the BMUV has since also been responsible for consumer protection policy. The BMUV shapes central issues for the future that are aimed at people and their living environment and is a driver of economic, ecological and social modernization.

Federal Ministry of Economics and Climate Protection (abbreviation: BMWi)

The Federal Ministry of Economics and Climate Protection of the Federal Republic of Germany (in short: BMUV) is a supreme federal authority of the Federal Republic of Germany. It deals with topics such as climate protection, digitalization, demographic change, securing the energy supply and the expansion of renewable energy generation.



Short for carbon dioxide.

CO fermentation

Fermentation of substrates which do not make up the main part of the substrate of the biogas plant. Usually, organic household waste is fermented with solid manure or sewage sludge.

CO substrate

The use of co-substrates in biogas plants primarily has yield advantages. Co-substrates contain more energy than liquid manure because they have not yet undergone a fermentation process. Accordingly, the gas yield from co-substrate is many times higher than the yield from pure liquid manure.


German Biomass Research Center (abbreviation: DBFZ)

The German Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) basically supports applied, sustainability and technology-oriented research on the use of biomass for energy supplyand is an institution for applied research of the Federal Republic of Germany The DBFZ is located in Leipzig. It is a non-profit limited liability company.

Diesel fuel

Under Section 2(1)(4) of the Energy Tax Act, diesel fuels include gas oils of UPos 2710 1943 to 2710 1948 and 2710 20 11 to 2710 20 19 of the CN, but:

  • no ship fuel, if tax-exempt according to § 27 EnergieStG,
  • no marked gas oils, if taxed according to § 2 para. 3 no. 1 EnergieStG (heating fuels, fuels for beneficiary installations).

Dimethyl ether (abbreviation: DME)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is considered a key building block of synthetic fuels from renewable feedstocks. According to the Biofuels Directive 2003-30-EC, dimethyl ether is considered a biofuel. However, this only applies if it is produced from biomass and used as a biofuel. In the long term, dimethyl ether is expected to replace liquid gas.

Fertilizer Ordinance

This ordinance regulates the marketing of fertilizers and requires for this purpose that the materials to be used must correspond to a fertilizer type. This also applies to secondary raw material fertilizers produced from biowaste.



A feedstock is a raw material intended for fermentation.

Energy plant

Energy crops are biomass grown and used for the purpose of energy production. This includes agricultural raw materials such as corn, beets, grass, millet or green rye. Energy crops are ensiled before use.

Energy Tax Act (EnergieStG)

The Energy Tax Act (EnergieStG) is a law on tax provisions for coal and natural gas as well as for energy products other than coal and natural gas. Specifically, the Consumer Tax Act regulates the taxation of all types of energy. Accordingly, it covers all types of energy of fossil origin as well as renewable energy products and synthetic hydrocarbons from biomass used as heating or fuel in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Environmental Protection Agency (abbreviation: EPA or US EPA)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent agency of the government of the United States of America for the protection of the environment and human health. Among other things, it is responsible for monitoring the implementation of environmental protection laws. Since 1982, the EPA has had its own enforcement and investigative authority, and since 1988, it has been given full police powers. In addition, EPA was given the authority to regulate emitters that affect air quality . This law is currently in effect and is considered a major success of U.S. environmental legislation, as it led to the technical and more environmentally friendly advancement of internal combustion engines.

Natural gas-H

Natural gas H comes from the North Sea and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Due to the high proportion of propane and butane, this gas has a calorific value of between 10 and 12.

Natural gas L

Natural gas L comes from the Netherlands and northern Germany. Due to the high proportion of intergases, L gas has a relatively low calorific value of between 8 and 10.

Peanut meal

Peanut extraction meal is a by-product of oil extraction from shelled peanuts.

Dehusked peanut expeller has a biogas yield of 549.0 Nm³ / t FM and a methane content of 62.7 %.Partially dehusked peanut expeller has a biogas yield of 538.0 Nm³ / t FM and a methane content of 62.6%.

Renewable energies

Renewable energies (abbreviation: EE) are energy sources that are available in practically inexhaustible supply for sustainable energy supply or are renewed relatively quickly. Renewable energies are also synonymous with regenerative energies or alternative energies.

Renewable energy includes:

  • Solar energy (photovoltaics, solar thermal)
  • Hydropower.
  • Wind power.
  • Geothermal and ambient heat.
  • Bioenergy (solid biomass such as wood, biogas, and liquid biomass such as biodiesel, as well as the biogenic fraction of waste).

Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG)

What does the abbreviation EEG stand for?

The Renewable Energy Sources Act (abbreviated to EEG) regulates the preferential feeding of electricity from renewable sources into the power grid and guarantees its producers fixed feed-in tariffs. The EEG has been in force since April 2000.

First entry point

The initial capture point along the biomethane value chain is a storage or processing facility that is directly managed by an economic operator or other contractor under a contractual arrangement and that purchases feedstock directly from producers of agricultural biomass, forestry biomass, wastes and residues or, in the case of renewable fuels of non-biogenic origin, the facility that produces such fuels.

European Union Emissions Trading System

The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is an emissions trading system. Its goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions within the European Union. It sets an upper limit for the total amount of greenhouse gases that polluters such as energy producers or industrial companies are allowed to release.


Exajoule (abbreviation: EJ) is related to the international unit of energy: joule. One exajoule is equal to 1 trillion joules (That is 10 to the power of 18 joules). The usual abbreviation for exajoule is EJ. The unit is used when indicating high energy consumption.

Germany's primary energy consumption in 2019 was 12.8 exajoules, while globally it was 584 exajoules that year.


Solid manure

Solid manure is animal excrement, usually mixed with straw or other bedding material.

Fatty acid methyl ester (abbreviation: FAME)

Fatty acid methyl esters (abbreviation: FAME) are compounds of a fatty acid and methanol (alcohol). The abbreviation FAME originates from the English: Fatty Acid Methyl Ester. FAMEs are used as fuel for diesel engines. It is also known as biodiesel because it is basically a mixture obtained from vegetable fats such as rapeseed oil or animal fats such as lard and methanol.


Fermenters are fermentation tanks that are gas-tight and also heated. Fresh substrates such as manure, grass, corn, etc. are run daily in these fermentation tanks. The substrates are brought to fermentation in the fermentation tank under the best possible conditions. This results in biogas production.

Solids input

Non-pumpable materials, such as manure, can be introduced directly into the digester via solids feed.

Cold Filter Plugging Point (abbreviation: CFPP)

The Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP) is officially the temperature limit for filterability according to DIN. This refers to the cold properties of diesel fuels and EL heating oil (extra light). It is the temperature in degrees Celsius at which a test filter becomes clogged by precipitated (n-)kerosenes under defined conditions.

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (abbreviation: FT)

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (abbreviation: FT synthesis) is a polymerization process for the production of hydrocarbons. This is done by hydrogenation of synthesis gas. Synthesis gas is carbon monoxide with hydrogen.

For the production of this synthesis gas, raw material sources such as coal, natural gas, crude oil, biomass or organic waste are used as raw material sources. However, the use of biomass is of particular importance from the point of view of the carbon dioxide balance.

Flexible Fuel Vehicle

Flexible Fuel Vehicle (Abbreviation: FFV), sometimes also called Fuel Flexible Vehicle.

FFV is therefore a vehicle that can run on gasoline, methanol and ethanol, as well as any mixtures of these three fuels. They are by no means vehicles with multi-fuel engines that burn a wide variety of fuels or vehicles with engines that run on diesel fuel or biodiesel.

Voluntary system

A voluntary scheme means an organization that certifies that economic operators comply with the criteria and provisions of Directive (EU) 2018/2001 and Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/807, including, but not limited to, the sustainability criteria and the greenhouse gas savings criteria.

Fuel Quality Directive (abbreviation: FQD)

The Fuel Quality Directive (FQD) is legislation that sets standards for the quality of fuels used in the European Union (EU). These standards aim to reduce the CO2 intensity of these fuels. The FQDs require suppliers to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production and use of their fuels.

Fodder beet

Fodder beets are considered to be very high-yielding and reliable fodder crops. They are readily eaten by dairy cows. In addition, fodder beets have a milk-stimulating effect. Due to its high mass gain, fodder beet is very good as NawaRo for biogas production. However: fodder beet cultivation in Germany is declining sharply due to problems with fodder supply.


Digestate from biogas plants

The operation of biogas plants has experienced a great upswing in recent years. Since they have been promoted by the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG 2000) and by its amendment (EEG 2004), one can definitely speak of a boom. Read more

Gas-to-Liquids (abbreviation: GtL)

Gas-to-liquids (abbreviation: GtL) is a process for producing synthetic fuels. In this process, natural gas is converted into synthesis gas by adding oxygen and water vapor. This synthesis gas is then converted to hydrocarbons in a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Whole plant silage (GPS)

Whole plant silage (abbreviation GPS) is often produced from cereal plants such as wheat, triticale, barley, etc., which are in the "dough ripening" stage. The whole plant in dough maturity is chopped (cut into small pieces), piled up, compacted and stored under exclusion of air by means of foils spread and weighted over it. Then we speak of whole plant silage.

Fermentation residue storage

Digestate stores are containers that are usually gas-tight. They are often not heated. The fermented material from the biogas plant is stored in the fermentation residue stores until it is spread as fertilizer on agricultural land.

Poultry manure

Poultry manure is a nutrient-rich farm fertilizer from poultry farming with litter.


Barley is a renewable raw material. Barley is very ideal as food and for livestock feed. In livestock feed, it is highly digestible, very digestible and can therefore be used indefinitely. Used in the fuel sector, biomethane from barley is conventional.

Gigajoule (J)

Gigajoule (GJ) is a unit of measurement for energy consumption. One gigajoule is equal to 1 billion joules (J) or 1,000 megajoules (MJ).

Globally Harmonised System (abbreviation: GHS)

Globally Harmonised System (abbreviation: GHS) refers to the attempt to create a globally uniform system for the classification and labelling of chemicals.

The basis of the GHS is that all chemicals are generally subject to classification and labeling requirements before they are placed on the market.

Grass silage

Grass silage is renewable raw material from arable land or grass from permanent grassland. These silages are only conditionally suitable for biogas production. There are biogas plant operators who mix grass silage with corn and liquid manure, for example, and achieve good results. However, the technical effort to prepare grass silage properly for the pre-pit of a biogas plant is high.

Green rye

Green rye or green-cut rye are winter rye varieties (Secale cereale) that are particularly suitable for winter intercropping. Green rye differs from conventional rye varieties in its earlier onset of mass growth, greater growth length, lower stability and lower grain yield.

Liquid manure

Slurry is not a natural excretory product of animals. Slurry is produced during the production process by mixing the components: Manure, urine, feed residues and water.

These components occur independently above the slatted floor and only become slurry below the slatted floor. Accordingly, slurry is produced in cattle and pig barns with single-litter housing as a waste product of the production process.

Manure bonus

The manure bonus is a political measure to promote biogas plants. The bonus was first introduced with the amendment to the Renewable Energy Priority Act in 2009. The manure bonus aims to promote biogas plants whose substrate mix consists of at least 30 % of manure, i.e. animal excrement.

Garbage separation

Screening and/or pressing, also centrifugal processes or combinations thereof. This results in a separation into solids and liquid slurry. Advantage: Volume reduction of the resulting raw slurry and a solid that contains many nutrients.



Oat meal is a by-product obtained during the processing of cleaned, dehulled oats into oat groats and flour. It consists mainly of oat bran and a smaller proportion of endosperm.

Oat bran

Oat hull bran is a by-product obtained during the processing of purified oats into oat kernels. It consists mainly of parts of the hull and bran.

HC emissions

HC emissions are hydrocarbon emissions. The term is derived from hydrocarbons (abbreviation: HC). HC emissions are a collective term for volatile organic substances in organic chemistry and in the automotive industry.

Calorific value

The calorific value (synonym: lower heating value) indicates the energy released during complete combustion and subsequent recooling to the reference temperature. In contrast to the calorific value, the heat of condensation is not included in the calorific value. The unit of measurement for the calorific value is kilowatt hours (kWh) per cubic meter. The calorific value basically says nothing about the rate of combustion.

Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (abbreviation: UFZ)

The Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (abbreviation: UFZ) - known as the Environmental Research Centre Leipzig-Halle GmbH until 28 November 2006 - investigates the impact of humans on nature and is one of the world's leading research institutions on this subject. Read more


Millet is an interesting addition to the crop rotation for many farmers. Millet performs similarly to silage corn in terms of energy yield per hectare. In addition, millet has a shorter growing season. Therefore, it is the ideal crop as a second crop after winter triticale or green rye, which are also used for biogas plants in mid-May.

Chicken dry manure (HTK)

Dry chicken manure (abbreviation HKT) is a nutrient-rich farm manure of animal origin without litter. It is increasingly used as a co-substrate in biogas plants. The prerequisite for its use is: The biogas plant has a permit for its use! Reason: Utilization of animal by-products in a biogas plant involves special requirements.

Hydrogenated esters and fatty acids

Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) is a renewable diesel fuel. This diesel fuel is considered renewable because it can be produced from a variety of vegetable oils and fats.

Hydrogenated vegetable oils

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (HVO) are vegetable oils that are converted into hydrocarbons by a catalytic reaction with hydrogen. This process is called hydrogenation and ensures that the properties of vegetable oils are adapted to those of fossil fuels (especially diesel fuel). HVOs can supplement diesel fuels as an admixture or even replace them completely.



Immissions are environmental effects such as air pollution, radiation, heat, light, noise and vibrations that affect people, animals, plants or property.

The Federal Immission Control Act was enacted to keep these impacts as low as possible.

Indirect land use change (abbreviation: ILUC)

Indirect land use change (abbreviation: ILUC) from the English "indirect Land Use Change"describes the effect that land originally intended for food production is used for the cultivation of energy crops. In order to ensure a general supply of food, however, this can lead to a change in land use, e.g. by converting forests into agricultural land. The consequence of such a land use change is that a considerable amount of CO2 emissions is released into the atmosphere.

Integrated Energy and Climate Program (abbreviation: IEKP)

The Integrated Energy and Climate Program (IEKP) is a program of the German federal government. The program describes important courses for a state-of-the-art, secure and climate-compatible energy supply in Germany. At the same time, the program contains measures for ambitious, intelligent and efficient climate protection. Among other things, the IEKP contains a package for more energy efficiency and more renewable energies. Read more

International Air Transport Association

The International Air Transport Association (IATA) was founded in 1945 as the umbrella organization for airlines. IATA's goal is to represent the air transport industry. The industry association promotes the understanding of the concerns of the air transport industry. It also aims to highlight the benefits that aviation brings to the global economy.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (abbreviation: IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The IPCC is often known as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It was established in November 1988 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) as an intergovernmental institution. The IPCC's task is to summarize the state of scientific research on climate change for political decision-makers. The aim is to provide a basis for science-based decision-making. The IPCC reports are considered by the scientific community to be the most credible and well-founded presentation of the state of scientific, technical and socio-economic research on the climate and its changes, as well as on ways of dealing with them.

International Sustainability and Carbon Certification (abbreviation: ISCC)

The International Sustainability and Carbon Certification (ISCC) is an international certification system. The ISCC system covers all types of bio-based raw materials and renewable energies for the energy, food, feed and chemical sectors.


Liquid manure

Slurry usually contains the leachate of the manure pile and water of various origins.


Potato flakes

To produce potato flakes, the raw potatoes are washed, then steamed, mashed and dried on rollers. Potato flakes are not to be confused with potato flour, which consists of dried raw potatoes.

Potato flakes contain mainly starch (~60 % of DM), which is broken down (gelatinized) by steaming. They are low in protein and fat, with the protein being very high quality.

The production of potato flakes is a complex process. It is carried out primarily for the utilization of surplus table potatoes.

Potato press pulp

Potato pulp is a by-product of starch extraction from potatoes. It is low in protein and fat, but still contains a lot of starch and energy. The DM content of the pressed pulp is about 18-20%. The pressed pulp has a very high digestibility. The organic matter can be digested and converted by pigs to 80% and by cows even to 88-90%.

Potato peeling waste

Potato peeling waste is produced during mechanical peeling of potatoes. Potato peeling waste has very different qualities depending on the peeling process.

Potato slurry

Potato stillage is a by-product of the distilling process. Apart from the starch converted into sugar or alcohol, no nutrients are lost in the distilling process. Slops are therefore extremely protein-rich feedstuffs. In the past, a German law on the spirits monopoly stipulated that potato stillage produced in agricultural distilleries had to be fed entirely to the distiller's own livestock. However, this has been repealed in recent years. Since then, stillage has also been spread on agricultural land as fertilizer.

Kilowatt hour

A kilowatt-hour (abbreviation: kWh) is a common unit for measuring energy. Basically, energy has the ability to do physical work such as making a lamp glow or turning a motor. However, it is true that work equals power times time kWh = kW * h Kilowatt-hour is not the basic unit for energy. This is the joule (J). 3,600 kJ= 1 kWh.

Sewage sludge

Sewage sludge is a sludge-like mass, deposit or sediment. Sewage sludge is produced by water and wastewater treatment processes.

Carbon dioxide equivalent (abbreviation: CO2 eq.)

What are CO₂ equivalents?

CO₂ equivalents (CO₂e) are a unit of measurement used to standardize the climate impact of different greenhouse gases.

Compost raw materials

Compost raw materials - in this case in the form of separately collected biowaste as well as green waste - are considered biomass according to § 2 Para. 2 No. 4 BiomasseV, if the input materials fed into the composting process correspond to the biowaste definition in § 2 No. 1 Bioabfallverordnung (BioAbfV of 21 September 1998). This applies in principle to biowaste from separate collection. This also applies to derived products and by-products from composting, if only biowaste according to Annex I BioAbfV, or the otherwise permitted materials according to § 2 BiomasseV are used.

Conformity factor (abbreviation: CF)

The conformity factor (CF) is the permissible factor by which the emissions of a "Real Driving Emission" test drive on the road may deviate from the 80 mg/km limit value. Real Driving Emission" tests (abbreviation: RDE), are measurements of real emissions during normal driving on the road.

Kitchen and food waste

Kitchen and food waste" is defined in the EC Hygiene Regulation (Regulation (EC) No. 1774/2002 Annex I No. 15) as all food waste originating from restaurants, catering facilities and kitchens, including commercial and domestic kitchens. Kitchen and food waste originating from household kitchens is excluded from consideration. It is assumed here that this type of food waste is largely recycled with the organic waste garbage can or else disposed of via the residual waste garbage can.

Short rotation plantation (abbreviation: SRP)

Short-rotation plantations (abbreviation: SRC) are plantations of fast-growing tree species that are capable of fruiting on agricultural land with a very short rotation period. Fast-growing and knock-out woody plants include, for example, tree species such as willow and poplar.

The biomass produced by SRC can be used as material, for example in the paper and pulp industry. However, it is often used as wood chips for energy production. Therefore, synonyms for SRC are often also energy forest or agricultural wood.

Combined heat and power generation

Combined heat and power (abbreviation: CHP) is a simultaneous conversion of energy into mechanical or electrical energy and usable heat within a thermodynamic process. The advantages of CHP are reduced energy use and lower resulting carbon dioxide emissions.


Linseed extraction meal

Protein-rich by-product obtained from linseed during oil extraction or pressing. Linseed extraction meal is high in protein and relatively high in fiber. The protein is easily digestible and has a dietetic effect. This dietary effect is due to the content of mucilage and unsaturated fatty acids. However, it is preferred as animal feed.

Linen cake

Linseed cake is the solids remaining after pressing of the oilseed, including the unpressed oil portion. Linseed cake is high in protein and relatively high in fiber. It is used in animal feed.

Liquiefied Natural Gas (abbreviation: LNG and Bio-LNG)

Due to the current energy crisis, the term abbreviation LNG to be heard and read in the media again and again. LNG means "liquefied natural gas". It is nothing other than natural gas, which is traditionally obtained from fossil sources and liquefied. Bio-LNG, on the other hand, is processed liquid biogas or pure biomethane (CH4) obtained from renewable sources. Both consist of methane of varying quality. Read more

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (abbreviation: LPG)

Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a mixture of propane and butane liquefied under pressure. LPG is a by-product of oil and gas production and oil refineries. Its chemical composition is similar to gasoline and it can be used as an alternative fuel.


Mass balance

A mass balance computationally compares biobased raw materials fed into production at the beginning and allocates them to the final products. This calculative principle offers advantages: Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced and fossil raw materials are saved, while product quality and properties remain the same.

Corn silage

Corn silage is a silage made from the whole corn plant that is used as a basic feed for ruminants and as a substrate for biogas production. The harvesting and preservation of energy corn for use in biogas plants is largely identical to the process for feed silage.Corn silage is considered a renewable resource when used in the biogas plant.

Megajoule (abbreviation: MJ)

Megajoule (abbreviation: MJ) is a decimal multiple of the derived unit for energy, work and heat quantity in the International System of Units (SI), Joule.The unit megajoule (MJ) is used more in the technical/scientific environment, in everyday practice the kilowatt hour (kWh) is more common.

Megaton oil units (abbreviation: Mtoe)

Megaton oil equivalent (abbreviation: Mtoe) is a unit for large amounts of energy. It is an obsolete measure for the physical unit of energy. Mtoe originates from the time when the energy content of energy sources such as coal and crude oil was still expressed in calories or kilocalories (kcal = 1000 cal). Mtoe corresponds to the average amount of energy obtained by burning one million tons of crude oil.

Megawatt hour

A megawatt hour (abbreviation: MWh) is a unit of measure for energy production and consumption. One MWh is equal to 1,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) and 1,000,000 watt hours (Wh).

The term kWh is usually used on bills or electricity meters. That's why we rarely encounter the unit of measurement megawatt-hour in everyday life.


Molasses is a by-product in sugar production. It is a honey-like dark brown sugar syrup. The main constituents are various types of sugar, which account for approx. 50 % of the DM, and water-soluble non-sugars from the sugar beet.

Molasses is an energy feed. Its use in feed is based not only on its nutritional value but also on other properties: dust binding, pelleting aid, possibly palatability. The high water content and sticky nature limit the amount.

Molasses chips

After the beets have been desugared, the "beet pulp" remains in the form of (dried) cossettes. When these are dried with the addition of molasses, molasses cossettes are produced. They are available either loose or pressed into pellets.

Molasses chips are used in animal feed because they are particularly tasty and stimulate the appetite. Accordingly, molasses chips increase feed intake.

Mesophilic operation

A mesophilic operation is a biochemical degradation process (biosynthesis). The degradation process takes place at a temperature of approx. 30-40°.

Methanol (abbreviation: MeOH)

Methanol (abbreviation: MeOH) is one of the most produced organic chemicals worldwide. Methanol is used in the chemical industry as a raw material for the production of basic chemicals such as formaldehyde and acetic acid. In addition to material use, methanol and its downstream products can also be used as an energy source. Here there is the technology "Methanol to Gaso", where methanol becomes fuel . Methanol also serves as a hydrogen supplier in fuel cells and is required in the synthesis of biodiesel.

Methane Slip

Methane slip is the escape of methane into the atmosphere, e.g. from biogas plants and gas engines. Problem: Methane has a very strong greenhouse gas effect in the atmosphere, which is why methane emissions must be minimized as far as possible in the interests of climate protection.

Methyl tert-butyl ether (abbreviation: MTBE)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (abbreviation: MTBE), actually correctly 2-methoxy2-methylpropane according to IUPAC, is an aliphatic ether. MTBE is important on a large scale, firstly because of its use as an additive in gasoline and secondly as a solvent in organic chemistry.


Manure is animal excrement, usually mixed with straw or other bedding material.


Whey is largely produced as a waste material during milk processing - sweet whey during cheese production, sour whey during the production of cream, quark and butter.


Sustainability certificate

A sustainability statement is a declaration by an economic operator based on a certificate issued by a certification body under a voluntary scheme. This declaration certifies that a certain quantity of raw materials or fuels complies with the sustainability criteria and the greenhouse gas savings criteria set out in Articles 25(2) and 29 of Directive (EU) 2018/2001.

Renewable raw materials

Renewable raw materials (abbreviation NawaRo, Nawaro or NR) are organic raw materials e.g.: Grass, corn, whole plant silage, which come from agricultural and forestry production. The basic principle is that NawaRos are used by humans for further applications outside the food and feed sector. This includes, among other things, use in biogas production.

Wet cutlet

Wet pulp is a by-product of sugar beet processing that is mainly used as animal feed. A distinction is made between dry and wet pulp on the basis of water content.

National Platform for Electromobility (abbreviation: NPE)

The National Platform for Electromobility (abbreviation: NPE) was an advisory body to the German federal government on electromobility. The aim of the platform was to make Germany the lead market and lead provider for electromobility by 2020. The work of the National Platform for Electromobility was concluded in 2018 and the topics transferred to the structure of the National Platform for the Future of Mobility (NPM). Read more.

National Platform Future of Mobility (abbreviation: NPM)

National Platform Future of Mobility (abbreviation: NPM) was a platform for discussions in the mobility sector during the last legislative period of the German Bundestag. For the discussions, relevant stakeholders as well as technical expertise and politics were involved. Based on the results of the discussions in the NPM, recommendations for action are made to politicians, industry and society. Read more.

Nawaro bonus

Bonus, according to § 8 para. 2 EEG, by which the minimum remuneration can be additionally increased, if:

  1. the electricity is generated exclusively from plants or plant components that are produced in agricultural, forestry or horticultural operations or as part of landscape management and that have not undergone any treatment or modification other than for harvesting, preservation or use in the biomass plant,
  2. Slurry as defined by the EC Hygiene Regulation or stillage from agricultural distilleries,
  3. Mixtures obtained from these substances.


By-product is a substance or object produced in a production process whose main objective is not the production of that substance or object. A by-product is not considered a waste, but a further direct use of the substance or object is safe; by-products are generated, among others, in the food sector (e.g. sugar production, oilseed pressing, starch production, etc.) and can be used directly in animal feeding, i.e. the material is used directly by farmers for animal feeding or used by the feed industry.

Mains connection

The grid connection is the technical connection of generation units or consumer plants to the grid of the public electricity supply.

Non Road Mobile Machinery (abbreviation: NRMM)

Non Road Mobile Machinery (abbreviation: NRMM) are among others construction machines, tractors or lawn mowers. NRMM emit almost the same amount of exhaust particles annually as road vehicles. Accordingly, there are already concepts to reduce the environmental impact from NRMM. Read more.

Not-To-Exceed- Standard (Abbreviation: NTE)

The Not-To-Exceed- Standard (abbreviation: NTE) is a standard published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA ensures that emissions from heavy-duty engines are measured. NTE establishes an area (the "NTE Zone") under an engine's torque curve where emissions may not exceed a specified value for any of the regulated pollutants.


Oil radish silage

The oil radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiformis) belongs to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) and originally comes from warmer climes. Oil radish was originally cultivated for oil production. Oil radish, as a source of energy in biogas plants, is preserved by ensiling. This is then referred to as oil radish silage.

Local public transport (abbreviation: ÖPNV)

Local public transport (ÖPNV) is the term used to describe passenger transport. The public transport is part of the public transport (ÖV) in the context of basic services or public services on road, rail, water and by cable car. In addition to local transport, public transport also includes regional transport. The distinction between public transport and individual transport (non-public), freight transport (non-passenger) and long-distance transport is made.


According to Section 2(1)(1) of the Energy Tax Act (EnergieStG), gasoline is gasoline falling under subheadings (UPos) 2710 1241 to 2710 1249 of the Combined Nomenclature (CN), but:

  • not aviation gasoline (UPos 2710 1231 of the CN); § 2 para. 1 no. 2 EnergieStG, until commitment year 2025
  • not jet fuel (UPos 2710 1921 of the CN); § 2 para. 1 no. 3 EnergieStG.

Oxymethylene ether (abbreviation: OME)

Oxymethylene ethers (abbreviation: OME) are a new class of oxygenated compounds. They can be used in diesel and gasoline fuels to replace the fossil hydrocarbons currently still used in these fuels.


Palm kernel extraction meal

Palm kernel extraction meal is a by-product obtained during oil production by extraction from the seeds of the oil palm, which have been largely freed from the stone shell.

Palm kernel extraction meal is not a high quality feed because the crude protein content is low at 20 % and the amino acid composition is only medium. It also has low digestibility in non-ruminants due to abundant structural carbohydrates (hemicelluloses). It is used in biogas plants.

Petajoule (abbreviation: PJ)

Petajoule (abbreviation: PJ) is the internationally binding physical unit of measurement for energy.
The unit petajoule (PJ) is used for large amounts of energy. Petajoules are used when indicating the primary energy consumption (PEV) of countries or regions, e.g. the energy mix in Germany is given in petajoules. One PJ is equal to one quadrillion joules.

Vegetable oil methyl ester (abbreviation: PME)

Vegetable oil methyl ester (abbreviation: PME) is biodiesel produced from palm oil. Vegetable oil methyl ester is produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil with the aid of the alcohol methanol. The technical properties of PME differ greatly from those of the starting product and are roughly equivalent to the properties of commercial diesel fuel.

Horse manure

Horse manure is animal excrement from horses, usually mixed with straw or other bedding material.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (abbreviation: PAH)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (abbreviation: PAH ) are carcinogenic substances formed by incomplete combustion processes of organic materials such as wood, coal, gasoline, oil, tobacco or waste. They also occur in food due to grilling, frying, smoking, drying. Read more.

Portable Emission Measurement System (abbreviation: PEMS)

The Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) is a compact and mobile exhaust gas measurement system for Real road driving (RDE) with the focus on legal vehicle type testing in Europe. Sampling can be done at the exhaust or via the EFM Exhaust Flow Meter (abbreviation EFM).

Power Biomass to Liquid (abbreviation: PBtL)

Power Biomass to Liquid (abbreviation: PBtL) is a process that converts biomass and renewable electricity via the Fischer-Tropsch route. The process uses renewable energy and biomass to produce liquid synthetic fuels that have the potential to mitigate the climate impacts of current transportation infrastructure, including long-haul air travel.

Power Fuels

Power Fuels are gaseous or liquid fuels (hydrogen, methane, synthetic gasoline and diesel fuels including kerosene) produced on the basis of electricity. Power Fuels can also be used as a raw material in industry. If the electricity required for electrolysis comes from renewable sources, climate-neutral fuels are produced - also known as "Green Power Fuels„.

Power-to-gas (abbreviation: PTG)

Power-to-gas is an energy technology that uses water electrolysis and electricity to produce a fuel gas. In this way, electricity can be converted into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis on demand and fed into the natural gas grid. Hydrogen, possibly ammonia or methane is often produced as the fuel gas. Read more

Power-to-Liquid (abbreviation: PTL)

Power to Liquid (abbreviation: PtL) roughly translates as "electrical energy to liquid". In general, PTL is understood to mean the production of liquid fuel with the aid of electric current. This process is not yet being used on a large scale, but it does have the potential to supply fuel from renewably generated electricity for sectors that cannot do without liquid fuel, such as aviation.

Power-to-X (abbreviation: PTX)

Power to X (abbreviation: PtX) refers to various technologies by which green electricity from e.g. wind or solar energy as well as hydropower is converted into other forms of energy. This serves to store or otherwise use renewable electricity surpluses in times of (future) oversupply of variable energies including solar and, wind energy. PtX technology is used to produce low-CO2 synthetic energy sources such as power fuels and chemical feedstocks. Read more

Primary energy

Primary energy is the energy that occurs directly in nature. Specifically, primary energy occurs in carrier media such as stone, lignite, crude oil or natural gas, as well as renewable energy sources.

Product group

A product group is raw materials, biofuels, bioliquids, non-gaseous biomass fuels with similar physical and chemical properties and similar calorific values or gaseous biomass fuels and LNG with similar chemical properties. The groups are all subject to the same provisions set out in Articles 7, 26 and 27 of Directive (EU) 2018/2001 for determining the contribution of biofuels, bioliquids and biomass fuels to renewable energy targets.


Quota obligated

A quota obligated party is a person who distributes taxable gasoline or diesel fuels on a commercial basis or within the scope of economic undertakings in accordance with Section 2 (1) No. 1 and No. 4 of the German Energy Tax Act (EnergieStG) pursuant to Section 37a (1) Sentence 1 of the German Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG).

Quota commitment

The quota obligation is triggered by the placing on the market of the following fuels pursuant to Section 37a (1) Sentence 1 of the Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG):

  1. Gasoline in accordance with Section 2 (1) No. 1 of the Energy Tax Act (EnergieStG).
  2. Diesel fuel according to § 2 para. 1 no. 4 EnergieStG

The quota obligation results from the marketing of a minimum quantity of at least 5,000 liters of fossil diesel or fossil gasoline (based on the entire commitment year). If a smaller quantity is marketed, no obligation arises.


Rapeseed cake

Rapeseed cake is the solid press residue obtained as a by-product during the cold pressing of rapeseed oil. The ingredients of rapeseed cake, especially the fat content, vary significantly depending on the pressing process.

Rapeseed cake, 8 % fat has a biogas yield of 532.6 Nm³/t FM and rapeseed cake, cold pressed 15 % fat has a biogas yield of about 579.2 Nm³/ t FM.

Rapeseed extraction meal

Rapeseed extraction meal is a by-product of oil extraction. Here, the oil is extracted from the rapeseeds with the aid of solvents. Today's rapeseed products can be used in feeding without hesitation.

Rapeseed extraction meal has a biogas output of about 496.1 Nm³/ t FM and a methane content of about 59.8 %.

Rapeseed methyl ester (abbreviation: RME)

Rapeseed methyl ester (abbreviation: RME) is colloquially known as rapeseed diesel. RME is a mixture of methyl esters consisting of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 16 to 18 carbon atoms each. In Europe, the largest share of biodiesel comes from RME. RME is also used as a solvent in industrial production.

Regenerative energy

Renewable energy sources include wind energy, solar energy, hydropower, geothermal energy and biomass. A characteristic feature of renewable energy sources is that they are not exhaustible. For example, unlike fossil fuels, solar energy is not finite or infinitely available. Regenerative energies also counteract climate change.


Glycerol is formed as a by-product during the transesterification of fats in the course of biodiesel production. According to this, pure glycerin contains at least 99 % glycerol. Since it is liquid, it is also used as a dust binder. Glycerin may only be used for feed purposes if it is obtained exclusively from vegetable fats and oils.

In biogas plants, the addition of crude glycerol leads to a significant increase in gas production. A short adaptation phase is sufficient, so that is quickly converted by the microorganisms in the fermenter to methane gas and carbon dioxide.

Real Driving Emissions (abbreviation: RDE)

Real Driving Emissions (abbreviation: RDE), describes the real exhaust emission behavior of cars, trucks and buses in everyday use. In summary, it is the emissions during practical driving.

Renewable Energy Directive (abbreviation: RED)

Renewable Energy Directive (abbreviation: RED) are the European "Renewable Energy Directive". The RED is to be implemented into national law in each EU member state. The new Renewable Energies Directive - Renewable Energies Directive II (abbreviation: RED II) was promulgated on December 21, 2018 and entered into force on December 24, 2018 and must be transposed into national law by June 30, 2021. The predecessor directive - RED I - will expire on July 1, 2021 (with the exception of some provisions). Read more

Renewable Fuel Standard (abbreviation: RFS)

Renewable Fuel Standard (abbreviation: RFS) is a U.S. federal program that requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel.

Rye semolina bran

Rye semolina bran is a by-product of the production of flour from cleaned rye, which consists mainly of parts of the husk, and otherwise of grain components that are not as largely freed from the endosperm as in the case of rye bran.

Rye semolina bran has a biogas yield of about 489.6 Nm³/ t FM and a methane content of about 53.7 %.

Rye post-flour

Rye endosperm is a by-product of the production of flour from cleaned rye. It consists mainly of parts of the endosperm, fine husk parts and few other orn components. It has a biogas output of approx. 576.0 Nm3/ t FM and a methane content of approx. 59.8 %.

Rye silage

Rye silage consists of the whole rye plant ensiled. Rye silage is used as a basic feed for ruminants and as a substrate for biogas production. Rye silage is a renewable raw material.

Rye dry stillage

During bioethanol production from rye, the residual material "stillage" is produced. Rye stillage contains all the substances that were added to the mash (proteins, fats and minerals). However, it no longer contains the carbohydrates that have been converted into alcohol.

Raw materials

Raw materials are substances that have not yet been processed into fuels. These include intermediate products.

Beet pulp

Beet pulp is purified, pressed fragments of sugar beet with portions of beet leaves. They are energy-rich, palatable and highly digestible for ruminants and are accordingly mainly used as feed.

Residues from agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry

Residues generated directly from agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and forestry and do not include residues from related industries or processing. E.g. straw is such a residue.


Acid whey

Acid whey is a by-product of treating milk with lactic acid bacteria (instead of rennet). After the protein is separated as cheese or curd, the whey remains.

Acid whey thickened has a biogas yield of approx. 79.1 Nm³/t FM and a methane content of 53.5 %. Acid whey fresh, on the other hand, has a biogas yield of 36.9 Nm³/t FM and a methane content of 53.5 %.

Sulfur dioxide (abbreviation: SO2)

Sulfur dioxide is a colorless, mucous membrane-irritating, pungent-smelling and sour-tasting toxic gas. SO2 is produced, among other things, during the combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels such as coal. The sulfur content of these fuels can be as high as 4 percent. Biomass also contains considerable amounts of sulfur, depending on its origin. The reason for this is that sulfur is a quantitative element in all known living organisms. Accordingly, sulfur dioxide is also produced when biomass is burned.

Sulfur trioxide (abbreviation: SO3)

Sulfur trioxide (abbreviation: SO3) is the anhydride of sulfuric acid. SO3 is classified as very toxic by inhalation. It is carcinogenic. Inhalation hardly causes any irritation, but the gas slowly converts to sulfuric acid in the lungs and can cause life-threatening pulmonary edema after a delay.

Secondary energy

Secondary energy are energy carriers that are available after a conversion of the primary energy. These are, for example, electricity, district heating, heating oil Bio-CNG, Bio-LNG, gasoline, coke or briquettes.


In slurry management, solids can be separated from the liquid as much as possible by separation.

Municipal waste

Municipal waste is mixed waste and separately collected waste from households, including paper and cardboard, glass, metals, plastics, biowaste, wood, textiles, packaging, waste electrical and electronic equipment, waste batteries and accumulators, and bulky waste,including mattresses and furniture;

Municipal waste does not include waste from manufacturing, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, septic tanks, and sewage and wastewater treatment, including sewage sludge, end-of-life vehicles, or construction and demolition waste.


Ensiling means that renewable raw materials such as corn, GPS, grass, etc. are harvested from the field (e.g. by mowing or chopping) and then transported away and piled up, compacted and rolled on the designated area near the biogas plant. Then one or more foils are spread over it and weighted down with silo bags/tapes or similar. Here the substrate is stored until it is fed into the fermenter of the biogas plant.

This process is used so that the substrate remains durable and energy-rich for a long time. Basically, ensiling suppresses the plant's own enzymes as well as aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, molds).


Soybean also seed of soybean is grown mainly for human food and oil production.

Soybean hulls

Soybean hulls are produced during the manufacture of soybean meal, during which the hulls are separated either before the soybeans are crushed or after drying by air sifting or sieving.

Soybean hulls have a biogas yield of about 516.7 Nm³/ t FM and a methane content of about 52.7 %.

Soybean extraction meal

Soybean extraction meal is the residue of oil extraction from soybeans that have been dehulled before processing. By removing the hulls, the content values have a fairly good consistency. Soybean extraction meal has a good amino acid pattern, with mainly a high lysine content, but low levels of S-containing amino acids. It is also referred to as soybean extraction meal HP (= high protein). It is widely used as animal feed.

Soybean extraction meal

Soybean methyl ester (abbreviation: SME), also called soybean oil methyl ester, is a mixture of methyl esters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, each with 16 to 22 carbon atoms. SME accounts for the largest share of biodiesel worldwide and especially in North America. In Europe, SME from imported soy is second only to rapeseed methyl ester.

Sunflower cake

Sunflower cakes are a by-product of oil extraction by pressing from (partially) dehulled sunflower seeds. In the extraction of sunflower oil, the kernels are either processed as they are or they are dehulled beforehand.


Legislation distinguishes between different types of so-called biogenic waste. These include food leftovers, stomach and rumen contents of pigs and cattle, grease trap residues from commercial kitchens and biowaste. They can all be utilized in biogas plants. Since such waste usually accumulates irregularly, it is preferably used as a co-substrate. Strict hygienization regulations apply to this. Often, the fermentation properties of biowaste vary greatly, making its use relatively challenging.

Spot market

Spot market is an economic market in the financial industry. It is linked to the supply and demand of spot or cash transactions. The spot market is characterized by train-by-train transactions on standardized trading objects, which must be delivered immediately. The counterparties must fulfill the transactions on both sides no later than two trading days after the conclusion of the transaction, i.e. the delivery of the trading object and the payment of the agreed price in return.


Stable manure (= solid manure, red manure) is produced by mixing excrement and urine with bedding. The urine not absorbed by the litter flows off as slurry. For manure preparation, as little as 4 kg of litter per dairy cow per day is sufficient if the greater part of the urine is discharged directly. In barns with deep litter, the entire urine is bound by the litter, e.g. 8 - 10 kg per cow and day for dairy cattle.

Nitrogen oxides (abbreviation: NOX)

Nitrogen oxides (abbreviation: NOX) is a collective term for the gaseous oxides of nitrogen. Accordingly, for various gaseous compounds that are composed of the atoms nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O). Nitrogen oxides relevant to air quality are nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which are formed as undesirable products of combustion processes.


A substrate is a raw material intended for fermentation. The term feedstock is often used as a synonym.

Sweet whey

Sweet whey is produced when milk is treated with rennet (instead of lactic acid bacteria).

Synthetic Natural Gas (abbreviation: SNG)

Synthetic Natural Gas (abbreviation: SNG) refers to methane produced synthetically by the power-to-gas process. It is a natural gas substitute produced on the basis of coal, lignite or propane. Today, SNG is also produced from hydrogen and synthesis gas. In order to be able to feed SNG into the gas network, its composition and properties must meet the specifications as closely as possible. SNG does not include biogas from NaWaRos or residual and waste materials from biogas plants. The reason is that biogas is produced on the basis of a natural process.


Tank-to-Wheel (abbreviation: TTW)

Tank-to-Wheel (abbreviation: TTW) refers to the chain of action from the energy absorbed (fuel, electrical energy) to its conversion into kinetic energy in motor vehicles.

Accordingly, tank-to-wheel emissions consider all greenhouse gas emissions that result from the combustion of the fuel used to power the vehicle. Accordingly, the manufacturer's documentation for the motor vehicle shows, for example, for comparison purposes:

-fuel or energy consumption from fuel pump or charging station

-Pollutant emissions

-Standing noise /Running noise

Technology Readiness Level (abbreviation: TRL)

Technology Readiness Level (abbreviation: TRL). TRLs are part of a method for describing the technical maturity of a technology during its development.

Technology and Promotion Center at the Competence Center for Renewable Resources (TFZ)

The Technology and Promotion Center in the Competence Center for Renewable Resources (TFZ) is an institution of the Bavarian State Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Forestry. The TFZ's task is to promote the provision and use of energy sources and raw materials from harvested crops and residual materials from agriculture and forestry, especially for rural areas. Read more.

Trans-European Networks (abbreviation: TEN)

Trans-European Networks (abbreviation: TEN) are Trans-European Networks. These networks are the European Union's contribution to the implementation and development of the internal market and to improving economic and social cohesion in the EU. Important aspects are the unification of the transport systems and the improvement of the energy infrastructure.

Greenhouse gases (abbreviation: GHG)

Greenhouse gases (GHG) define trace gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect of a planet. According to the Kyoto Protocol, the following gases are greenhouse gases:

-carbon dioxide (CO2),

-methane (CH4), and

-nitrous oxide (N2O) and the

-fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases): hydrogen-containing hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).

Since 2015, nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) has also been included.

Greenhouse gas balance

The greenhouse gas balance (abbreviation: GHG balance) records climate-impacting emissions for each process step along the process chain of biogas production and use and adds them up. At the end of the process chain, there is a benefit from e.g. injected biogas or biomethane, electricity or heat. This benefit can replace other processes that are harmful to the climate, such as natural gas, fossil fuels, and other fuels. The emission offsetting of these processes is done via credits. If these credits are higher than the burdens from biogas production and use, a net greenhouse gas saving is achieved.

Greenhouse gas quota

The greenhouse gas quota (abbreviation: GHG quota) gives oil companies the CO2 reduction targets for their fuels.

Dried stillage

Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) are produced in a bioethanol production plant. Dried stillage is produced after drying of the stillage by-product based on starch-containing grains. The dried stillage can be pelletized and then used as storable feed, especially for dairy cows. The feed produced in this way is known as DDGS.


Monitoring audit

A surveillance audit is any follow-up audit for certificates issued by a certification body under a voluntary scheme. The surveillance audit can be issued after certification and before a recertification audit. It can be performed quarterly, semi-annually or annually.

Union database

The Union database is the database referred to in Article 28(2) of Directive (EU) 2018/2001.

Upstream emissions

Upstream emissions are emissions that are generated,

  • before the raw material enters the refinery or processing plant,
  • in the exploration and development of deposits,
  • in the production and extraction of the crude oil,
  • during the processing of the crude oil or
  • in transporting the raw material to the refinery.

More details on potentials for greenhouse gas savings in the upstream sector. Read more.

Upstream Emission Reduction Regulation (abbreviation: UERV).

The Upstream Emission Reduction Regulation (abbreviation: UERV) is the regulation on the crediting of upstream emission reductions to the greenhouse gas quota. In general, this regulation serves to implement Council Directive (EU) 2015/652 of 20 April 2015 establishing calculation methods and reporting obligations pursuant to Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels. Read more

Place of origin

Point in the supply chain at which a waste or residue is generated. In the Water Framework Directive, this is referred to as the "original waste generator".

Used Cooking Oil (abbreviation: UCO)

dt. used cooking oil. Oils and fats of vegetable or animal origin that have been used for cooking or frying food. UCO is normally produced in restaurants, canteens or similar establishments where food is cooked or processed. UCO is considered a sustainable raw material produced from by-products of the food industry.

Used cooking oil methyl ester (abbreviation: UCOME)

Used cooking oil methyl ester (abbreviation: UCOME) is, in German, biodiesel made from used cooking oil. UCOME meets the quality criteria of DIN EN 14214.


Processing residues

Residues generated in "related industries or processing" are referred to as "processing residues."

Examples of processing residues include crude glycerin (glycerin that is not refined) and bagasse. Corn cobs produced in a processing facility (i.e., the corn kernels are separated from the cob in a processing facility) would also be classified as processing residues.

Composite infrastructure

Interconnection infrastructure means a system of infrastructure, including pipelines, LNG terminals, and storage facilities, for the transportation of gases consisting primarily of methane and including biogas and gas from biomass, particularly biomethane, or other types of gas that can be technically and safely injected into and transported through the natural gas pipeline system, hydrogen systems, and liquid fuel pipeline networks and transmission and distribution infrastructure.

Composite infrastructure

Non-compliance is the failure of an economic operator or a certification body to comply with the rules and procedures established under the voluntary system to which they belong or under which they operate.


Hydrogen (H2)

Hydrogen is a natural chemical element whose energy content can be harnessed. Climate-friendly produced, so-called green hydrogen, makes it possible to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in industry and transport where energy efficiency and the direct use of electricity from renewable sources are not sufficient. Hydrogen produced in electrolysers using electricity from the general power grid is referred to as gray hydrogen. But importantly for the fuel sector, hydrogen-powered vehicles emit neither CO₂ nor other harmful gases, only water.

Wheat bran

Wheat bran is a by-product of the extraction of wheat flour for human consumption. In flour milling, the endosperm is separated from the rest of the grain. Depending on the degree of milling, different products are designated. Wheat bran is used in feed mainly as a dietary component. In biogas extraction, it is considered a waste material.

Well-to-Tank (abbreviation: WTT)

Well-to-tank (synonym: Well2Tank), abbreviated WTT, means "from the borehole to the tank or fuel pump". This is a way of looking at the effort required to provide drive energy for motor vehicles, from primary energy extraction to provision for the vehicle.

Well-to-Wheel (abbreviation: WTW)

Well-to-Wheel (abbreviation: WTW) is considered an analysis method in the field of motor vehicles. Here, the energy consumed in the entire chain - from extraction and production of the fuel to transport and operation of a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine - is calculated. Also used as a synonym isWell2Whell (abbreviation: W2W).

Economic operator

Economic operator means a producer of raw materials, a collector of waste and residues, an operator of facilities that process raw materials into finished fuels or intermediate products, an operator of energy production facilities (electricity, heating, or cooling), or any other operator, including storage facilities or traders, that is physically in possession of raw materials or fuels and, to that extent, you process information about the sustainability characteristics, as well as characteristics related to greenhouse gas savings, of those raw materials or fuels.





A certificate is a declaration of conformity issued by a certification body under a voluntary scheme. The certificate attests that an economic operator complies with the requirements of Directive (EU) 2018/2001.

Certification audit

A certification audit (synonym: initial audit) refers to an initial audit prior to participation in a scheme with the aim of obtaining a certificate under a voluntary scheme.

Certification bodies

A certification body means an independent accredited or recognized conformity assessment body. This conformity assessment body enters into an agreement with a voluntary system to provide certification services for raw materials or fuels by conducting audits of economic operators and issuing certificates on behalf of the voluntary systems using the voluntary system's certification system.

Sugar beet (fresh)

Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, Altissima group) is an agricultural crop; it belongs to the foxtail family (Amaranthaceae). Increasingly, sugar beet is important as a renewable raw material, e.g. for the production of bioethanol and biogas.